Copyright © Alien visitors
Author : Girish Vete
Friday, October 5, 2012

Crop Circles Mystery

Crop Circles are geometric patterns that appear mysteriously in crop fields. The crop is not cut, but is usually laid flat and most often swirled into an attractive floor pattern. Most patterns appear in cereal crops such as wheat and barley, but circles have been known to occur (in lesser numbers) in oilseed rape, maize, linseed, grass and even borage - to name a few. In the US many circles appear in soya, as it grown prevalent in that part of the world.


Although it might seem obvious, crop circle occur only during the crop growing season. In the UK the first circles can start to occur in April and May, reaching their height in late July and August. Crop circles do in fact occur all over the world in many countries and obviously they similarly follow growing seasons in that particular part of the world.
In the UK most circles occur in the county of Wiltshire, although circles do happen (in lesser numbers) countrywide. In the early season (April/May) numbers are few but this gradually builds up as the summer moves on, at the height of the season (Late July/August) several circles can appear on one night. The season ends with the harvest - and the slate is wiped clean for another year.

The crop circles do seem to have an affinity for ancient sites. Many circles appear close to stone circles, barrows, earthworks and other landmarks. Stonehenge and Avebury have played host to many crop circles over the years.

Mowing devil

There is an ongoing debate between researchers as to the longevity of the phenomenon. Essentially two camps exist within the debate; those who believe that the crop circle phenomenon is a relatively modern occurrence beginning in the mid 1970's and those who believe that there are reports going back to the beginning of the century and even earlier. The first circle photographed (documented) in the UK was in 1976, however many farmers report circles in their fields going back considerably further than this date. There is a woodcut dating back to the 1600's known as the 'Mowing Devil' which seems to show some kind of circular pattern in a crop field, however opinion is divided as to whether this can be directly linked to the crop circles or not.


Crop circles are not just circles -- they can come in many different shapes. The most basic (and the most common) crop circle is the single circle. Circles may also come in sets of two (doublets), three (triplets) or four (quadruplets). Circles also may be enclosed in a thin outer ring.

The stalks inside a crop circle are typically bent into what is known as a swirl pattern, and the circles may spin clockwise or counterclockwise. In patterns with several circles, one circle may spin clockwise and another counterclockwise. Even a single circle may contain two "layers" of stalks, each spinning in a different direction.

Crop circles can range in size from a few inches to a few hundred feet across. Most early crop circles were simple circular designs. But after 1990, the circles became more elaborate. More complex crop patterns, called pictogram's, emerged. Crops can be made to look like just about anything -- smiling faces, flowers or even words. Crop circles are sometimes unique designs, but they can also be based on ancient motifs.

Some of the more sophisticated patterns are based on mathematical equations. Astronomer and former Boston University professor Gerald S. Hawkins studied several crop circles and found that the positions of the circles, triangles and other shapes were placed based on specific numerical relationships. In one crop circle that had an outer and an inner circle, the area of the outer circle was exactly four times that of the inner circle. The specific placement of the shapes indicates that, whoever the circle makers are, they have an intricate knowledge of Euclidean geometry (the geometry of a flat surface introduced by the mathematician Euclid of Alexandria).

Some circles have thin lines leading away from them. These lines, called spurs, are not actually a part of the circle. They are created by the farmer's tractor.


Some cerealogists (people who study crop circles) say that these diagrams must be created by intelligent alien beings from elsewhere. Even though these diagrams must be constructed in a very short time span, the genuine crop circles never show any serious mistakes or blunders of execution. Cerealogists see this as evidence that the aliens must be very intelligent and much more advanced than we are. That's mere speculation, of course. Others say the real reason is that there's a worldwide conspiracy to hide the fact that the aliens sometimes do make mistakes. This cover up is carried out by people who want to preserve the myth that the aliens are a perfect race. The fact that you've never heard of such crop circle blunders just shows how effective this cover up is, they say. Mistakes are repaired at the site, or sometimes photographs of the circles are retouched. This has about as much to recommend it as any of the other conspiracy theories accepted and believed by simple-minded people.

They might be want to send some type of message to the human being. Take a look at our thinking about them, we send golden coin plate via voyager by thinking that if anyone exist on that planet or moon and they can understand that message and can know that aliens visited their place. Some kind of same thinking may be they following. 

Extraterrestrial may be trying to communicate in big way.

Voyager record plate
Send via Voyager on other planets which it visited within its journey. If we can send some type of unexplained message to the other life then why they can't?

People who agree with this theory say that the circles are either the imprint left by landing spacecraft or messages brought from afar for us earthlings. Some eyewitnesses claim to have seen UFO-like lights and strange noises emanating from crop circle sites.


many have related crop circles to spiritual reformations of the Gaia hypothesis, claiming that "Gaia", the earth, is actually alive and that crop circles are messages or responses to stimuli such as global warming and human pollution. It asserts that the earth may be modeled as if a single super-organism, in that earthly components (e.g. biota, climate, temperature, sunlight, etc.) influence each other and are organized to function and develop as a whole.[44] Responding to local beliefs that "extraterrestrial beings" in UFOs were responsible for crop circles appearing, the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) described crop circles as "man-made". Thomas Djamaluddin, research professor of astronomy and astrophysics at LAPAN stated: "We have come to agree that this 'thing' cannot be scientifically proven. Among others, paranormal enthusiasts, ufologists, and anomalistic investigators have offered hypothetical explanations that have been criticized as pseudoscientific by skeptical groups and scientists, including the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.

Doug Bower and Dave Chorley

In 1991, self-professed pranksters Doug Bower and Dave Chorley made headlines claiming it was they who started the phenomenon in 1978 with the use of simple tools consisting of a plank of wood, rope, and a baseball cap fitted with a loop of wire to help them walk in a straight line. Inspired by Australian crop circle accounts from 1966, Doug and Dave reportedly made more than 200 crop circles from 1978–1991 and claimed to be responsible for most if not all circles made prior to 1987.After their announcement, the two men demonstrated making a crop circle. Despite general acceptance of their story, crop circle researchers remain skeptical of many of their claims, due to the complexity of some circles, absolute precision, size (some were 1 km wide) and time required to be done. After their revelation, crop formations started appearing in countries all over the world, increasing in number, size, and complexity.They are most likely made by imitators of Bower and Chorley.

Witness view :

In August 2001, two witnesses in Holland saw "columns" or "tubes" of white light descend into a string-bean field. Shortly after they observed this light, they saw a new crop formation exactly where the light had descended. For a simulated image, see BLT Research: Eyewitness Report.

People close to the sites of crop circles have had some strange physical and emotional reactions. Some have reported feeling dizzy, disoriented, peaceful or nervous. Others have said they heard a buzzing noise or felt a tingling sensation. After visiting the Julia Set formation near Stonehenge in 1996, a group of women reported changes in their normal menstrual cycles. Most startling was a small group of post-menopausal women who suddenly began menstruating again after visiting the site.

Experimental results :

After studying the soil samples and grain dispersion pattern it is concluded that it would be highly impossible that all of these designs to be man-made. The pattern is experienced from the sky only hence logically its very difficult to produce such a designs for human being within less time span.

Spinning plasma vortex (William Levingood)

The plasma vortex theory took a back seat for a while, until Dr. William Levengood redeveloped it into a much more radical and encompassing view. Levengood attempted to explain the microwave energy and other residues he had found in grain samples taken from crop formations. In fourteen years of scientific investigation on crop circles, Levengood has examined more than 250 crop formations in detail. Since 1992, he and his team have been involved in extensive on-the-ground surveillance and the collecting of samples and electromagnetic and other readings from crop formations. These samples are then sent to Levengood for analysis in his private laboratory based in Michigan, where he compares the grain collected from in and around the circles with control samples taken from edges of the fields the formations were found in.

William Levingood :

The first scientific attempt to explain the appearance of crop circle formations was put forward by Terence Meaden, a physicist and meteorologist with master's and doctorate degrees from Oxford University and a Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society. In addition, Meaden is the founder of the tornado study group TORRO, which collects, analyzes, and publishes data on the incidence, strengths, and origins of tornadoes and severe storms.

Messages from crop circles :

According to researchers extraterrestrials want to send some kind of message to us. That may be about earth, any further disaster or anything. We don't know who are they and who are delivering that . They may be higher intelligence who want to communicate with us in this manner. 
Thursday, October 4, 2012

UFO visitation in The Papua, New Guinea

On April 5, 1959, at the Anglican mission village at Boianai, Papua, New Guinea, one of the most well-documented cases of alien visitation began. At this time in history, this village was a territory of Australia. The Australian Anglican Church had sent Father William Booth Gill to lead the mission. He would be the main subject of a series of UFO sightings with alien beings.

Light on Mount Pudi:

Reverend Gill, highly respected by the Church, was well-liked by his colleagues. Gill was a skeptical man where UFOs were concerned, and certainly not looking for them. His hands were full running the mission. The first hint of alien contact would take place on April 5. Gill, while scanning the landscape, saw a light on uninhabited Mount Pudi. The light, states Gill, moved extremely fast.

UFO seen in 1959

Inverted Saucer-Shaped Object:

During the summer of 1957, Gill's assistant Stephen Moi reported to him that he had observed an "inverted saucer-shaped object" which was hovering above the mission. Gill thought nothing of it at the time. The report, though quickly dismissed, would at least turn their attention to the skies above, readying them for what was to come-direct contact with alien beings.
The Size of 5 Full Moons:

On June 26, Father Gill again saw a bright light to his northwest. Evidently, rumors of the previous sighting by Moi had spread among the villagers, and soon they were beside Gill, watching the light above. Sworn statements of this event listed 38 individual witnesses who saw a disc-shaped UFO the size of 5 full moons strung together. The UFO had four legs, like landing gear, but was high in the sky.
Four Human-Like Beings:

An enormous object was hovering over the mission. Soon, four beings, similar to humans, emerged from the object. They appeared to be working on something on their ship. The beings would go inside the object, and then soon return, as if fetching tools. At regular intervals, a blue light shone up above the UFO. This craft was visible for 45 minutes, vanishing at 7:30 P.M.
25 Observers Witness Event:

Forty-five minutes later, many of the witnesses remained, still pondering the sight they had seen. Soon, several objects smaller than the previous UFO would appear in the sky. About 20 minutes afterward, the first UFO was back in view. The sighting of the larger UFO would last four hours, as witnesses would come and go. Twenty-five witnesses signed their testimony to the sighting. A heavy cloud cover ended the event.
Beings Working on Object:

Incredibly, the next night the giant disc-shaped UFO returned at 6:00 PM. Two of the smaller objects flanked it. Father Gill, with many of the witnesses from the night before, watched the unbelievable sight. Father Gill's statement concerning the sighting:
"On the large one, two of the figures seemed to be doing something near the center of the deck. They were occasionally bending over and raising their arms as though adjusting or "setting up" something.

Being Waves Back:

"One figure seemed to be standing, looking down at us."
Gill then waved at one of the creatures. "To our surprise the figure did the same. Ananias waved both arms over his head-then the two outside figures did the same. Ananias and myself began waving our arms, and all four seemed to wave back. There seemed no doubt that our movements were answered... "

Object Moves Away:

This exchange of waves continued for some time. One witness, Eric Kodawara waved a torch at the beings, and they waved back. Gill left the group briefly to eat, but when he returned, the object and beings were still there. This time they were farther away. There was a church service at 7:45 PM, and afterwards, the UFO was gone.

Analysis of Event:

The series of alien contacts in Papua, New Guinea, seem like something from a science fiction movie. However, the reputation of Father Gill cannot be overlooked, and there is no reason to think he and the other witnesses were lying or hallucinating.
Veteran UFO expert Dr. J. Allen Hynek thoroughly investigated the Papua events, and concluded that they were genuine. No alternate explanation has been offered to explain what happened, except to say that UFOs and alien beings visited New Guinea in 1957.

Myth Story 

It is now 50 years since a 31-year-old Australian Anglican missionary in Papua New Guinea, William Gill, and 37 parishioners and staff made the best attested and least explained sighting of unidentified flying objects in the long, otherwise kooky history of the genre.

The day before the celebrated encounter of a mystifying kind, Gill had written a letter to David Durie, acting principal of St Aidan’s College, which trained teacher-evangelists at Dogura, then the headquarters of the church in PNG.

Gill, who was priest in charge at Boianai, a large village on the mountainous north coast of Milne Bay province, about 25 km west of Dogura, told During of a UFO sighting by Stephen Moi, then an assistant teacher.

He wrote: “There have been quite a number of reports over the months from reliable witnesses.

“The peculiar thing about these most recent reports is that the UFOs seem to be stationary at Boanai or to travel from Boianai,” a beautiful location brilliantly captured by pioneer Australian photographer Frank Hurley in 1921. “I myself saw a stationary white light twice on the same night on April 9 . . . the assistant district officer, Bob Smith, and Mr Glover have seen it. I do not doubt the existence of these things, but my simple mind still requires scientific evidence before I can accept the from-outer-space theory. I am inclined to believe that probably many UFOs are more likely some form of electric phenomena or perhaps something brought about by the atom bomb explosions etc.

“That Stephen should actually make out a saucer could be the work of the unconscious mind, as it is very likely that at some time he has seen illustrations of some kind in a magazine.

“It is all too difficult to understand for me; I prefer to wait for some bright boy to catch one to be exhibited in Martin Place.

“Yours, Doubting William.”

The following day, he wrote again: “Dear David, life is strange, isn’t it? Yesterday I wrote you a letter, expressing opinions re the UFOs. Now, less than 24 hours later I have changed my views somewhat.

“Last night we at Boianai experienced about four hours of UFO activity, and there is no doubt whatsoever that they are handled by beings of some kind. At times it was absolutely breathtaking. Here is the report.

“Cheers, Convinced Bill.

“P.S. Do you think P. Moresby should know about this? If people think it worthwhile, I will stand the cost of a radio conversation if you care to make out a comprehensive report from the material on my behalf!!”

What had Gill and his parishioners seen?

The notes he made following his encounter describe a bright white light appearing in the northwestern sky, approaching the mission station, then hovering about 100m in the air.

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Life on other planets

      According to the present experiments and knowledge life exists only on earth. But the question arises are we alone in this whole universe??? 

Our solar system
There may be billions of planets orbiting stars in the Milky Way, nebulae.  Not all planets have the condition similar to the earth means water, temperature etc. 
            Alien life, such as bacteria, has been hypothesized to exist in the Solar System and throughout the universe. This hypothesis relies on the vast size and consistent physical laws of the observable universe. According to this argument, made by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth.

Possibilities of life :  

Experts examining results from the Kepler telescope have identified more than 1,200 planets in orbit around distant stars, 54 of which are a similar size to Earth and in habitable zones from their suns. Means life may be exists on that. The number is of within the telescope view range stars, there might be billions of planets or their moons which has the same condition as the earth.

depicts 55 Cancri e as it orbits its star. The planet whips around the star closely and quickly: It is 25 times closer to the star than      Mercury is to our sun and completes one orbit -- its year -- in a mere 18 hours.  (NASA)
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected light emanating from a "super-Earth" planet beyond our solar system for the first time. While the planet is not habitable, the detection is a historic step toward the eventual search for signs of life on other planets.

"Spitzer has amazed us yet again," said Bill Danchi, Spitzer program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "The spacecraft is pioneering the study of atmospheres of distant planets and paving the way for NASA's upcoming James Webb Space Telescope to apply a similar technique on potentially habitable planets."

to be continue...

Tuesday, August 7, 2012



The Mexican city of Teotihuacan and the Pyramid of the Moon were built along with the Pyramid of the Sun between 1 A.D. and 250 A.D. The pyramid was discovered in the early 1900's. In the early 1970's, a cave was discovered under the Pyramid of the Sun, leading down a long corridor to a room with artifacts. The artifacts suggest the room was used as a religious shrine before the pyramid was built.

Teotihuacan :

  1. 100 BC - 0 AD Proto-Teotihuacan (two small hamlets in northern pocket of Valley of Mexico, population = 5000)
  2. 0 BC - 150 AD Teotihuacan I - (Avenue of the Dead, Pyramid of the Sun established)
  3. 150 AD - 300 AD Teotihuacan II - (Grid pattern established)
  4. 300 AD - 650 AD Teotihuacan III - (Pinacle of development, population = 85,000-200,000)
  5. 650 AD - 750 AD Teotihuacan IV - Decline and fall

Besides the major ceremonial pyramids, there were also palaces and temples, especially near the north end of the city surrounding the plaza in front of the Pyramid of the Moon. These included the Palace of Quetzalcoatl, the Butterfly Palace, the Temple of the Feathered Conches, and the Palace of the Jaguars. The sophistication and artistry of the Teotihuacanos can be seen everywhere in the magnificent murals and stone carvings which adorn the walls of the palaces and apartment compounds.

The city met its end around 700 AD through deliberate destruction and burning by the hand of unknown invaders. Although a century earlier, around AD 600, almost all of Teotihuacan's influence over the rest of Mesoamerica had ceased, indicating some sort of internal malaise or decline before the destruction.

The first strains appeared about AD 650. A century later, Teotihuacan was a shadow of its former self. The population had declined so rapidly that the once-proud city was now little more than a series of hamlets extending over an area of about a square kilometer.

Some great catastrophe apparently struck the city in AD 700, reducing its population to below 70,000. Many of its people moved eastward. The city was deliberately burnt and destroyed. Over the years, its buildings collapsed and the pyramids became overgrown with dense vegetation.

Teotihuacan's decline was almost as rapid as its rise to prominence. Even so, eight centuries later, Teotihuacan was still revered far and wide as an intensely sacred place. But no one remembered who had built it or that tens of thousands of people had once lived there.

Away from the Avenue of the Dead, the city continued to live on for another two centuries, although the population of Teotihuacan sunk to only a quarter of its former total. Some sort of crisis overtook all the Classic civilizations of Mesoamerica (including the Maya) two centuries later, forcing them to abandon most of the cities. Some anthropologists believe the crisis may have been a lessening of the food supply caused by a drying out of the land and a loss of water sources to the area.

They speculate that this might have been brought about by a combination of natural climactic shift towards aridness that appears to have happened all over Mexico during the Classic period and the residents having cut all the timber in the valley. Originally there were cedar, cypress, pine, and oak forests; today there are cactus, yucca, agave, and California pepper trees. This change in vegetation indicates a big climate shift.

Although Teotihuacan presents a puzzle to archaeologists because it was a huge city that appears to have arisen without antecedents, the single most important fact which archaeologists have learned about the Classic period in Mexico was the supremacy of Teotihuacan. As the urbanized center of Mexico, with high population and tremendous production, its power was imposed through political and cultural means not only in its native highland habitat, but also along the tropical coasts, reaching even into the Maya area. It's trading and tribute empire was comparable with the Aztec empire that eventually followed it. All other Mexican states were partly or entirely dependent upon it for whatever achievements they attained.

When Teotihuacan fell, around 650 AD, the unifying force in Mesoamerica was gone, and with it widespread inter-regional trade. The Late Classic period saw increasing fractionalization among cultures. In the place of great states, petty kingdoms and militarism arose. From the highpoint of civilization at Teotihuacan, wars became the rule of the day, and for those unfortunate enough to be captured, sacrifice to the gods. Military empires, such as the Toltecs in the twelfth century AD (and later the Aztecs, starting in fourteenth century AD), which grew up from these warring factions were the cultures met by the Spanish in 1519 and largely eradicated by 1521.

Probably the reason that the Spanish were able to conquer the Aztecs in such a short amount of time had less to do with their skill as soldiers and more to do with the fact that the Spaniards physically resembled the descriptions in Aztec legends of the god Quetzalcoatl.

Quetzalcoatl, while symbolized as a feathered serpent, appears also to have been an historic figure - the man credited with bringing civilization, learning, culture, the calendar, mathematics, metallurgy, astronomy, masonry, architecture, productive agriculture, knowledge of the healing properties of plants, law, crafts, the arts, and peace to the native people. He is pictured as a quite different physical type than the natives - fair skinned and ruddy complexioned, long nosed, and with a long beard. He was said to have arrived by boat from the east, and sailed off again years later promising to return someday.

What is behind :

Ancient alien theorists have pointed out that some ancient monuments demonstrate a thorough knowledge of astronomy surpassing knowledge of later cultures. The Pyramid of the Sun at Mexico’s Teotihuacan, lies at the center of a complex of pyramids, each aligned with a planet in the solar system.

Teotihuacan used to be a thriving city and ceremonial center that predated the Aztecs by several centuries. Most likely it was Mexico's biggest ancient city at its peak and the sixth largest city in the world in AD 600.  Teotihuacan began declining sharply around 650 AD, and was almost completely abandoned around 750 AD. No one knows why.

Structure of buildings :

The Pyramid of the Sun

The Pyramid of the Sun, built in the 2nd century AD, dominates the landscape of the ancient city of Teotihuacan in Mexico.It is the third largest pyramid in the world and the largest in the Teotihuacan complex.

This sacred, truncated edifice stood 210 feet high and 650 feet square, a vast pyramid of rubble, adobe mud, and earth all faced with stone. A wooden temple on the summit of the pyramid afforded a spectacular view of the sprawling city below.
The pyramid is actually a succession of pyramids built one on top the other over the centuries. The pyramids and many other structures at Teotihuacan are stepped, rather than smooth sided like the Egyptian pyramids, and the stones of which they are made are not as large as stones used to build Egyptian pyramids. 
At its peak time - most of Teotihuacan was plastered, and the pyramids were painted bright red.
Another fascinating feature of some of the pyramidal structures is that they contain a broad, thick layer of mica, which had to be brought from Brazil, over 2000 miles away! Mica is very flaky and fragile, yet it was brought in very large pieces from great distances (and without wheeled vehicles). Then the mica was used on an inner layer of the pyramid, not where it could be seen. Why? One characteristic of mica is that it is used as an insulator in electronic and electrical things. Was that its purpose here? Another mystery of Teotihuacan.
In 1971, a large cave underneath the Pyramid of the Sun was discovered which throws light on why the pyramid was constructed, and perhaps even on why Teotihuacan itself was built where it was.
The cave is actually a natural lava tube enlarged and elaborated in ancient times. The Teotihuacan Valley is a side valley of the Valley of Mexico and is one of a number of natural basins in the midst of an extensive region of volcanoes, therefore, there are many caves formed from the tubes of old lava flows.
The ancient use of the cave predates the pyramid. Aztec tradition placed the creation the Sun and Moon, and even the present universe, at Teotihuacan.
In Pre-Spanish Mexico, such caverns were symbolic wombs from which gods like the Sun and the Moon, and the ancestors of mankind, emerged in the mythological past. This is an immensely holy spot and the memory of its location persisted into Aztec times.

 The Pyramid of the Moon

The Moon Pyramid is located at the northern end of the Avenue of the Dead, which is the main axis of the city. The pyramid, facing south, was built as the principal monument of the Moon Pyramid complex.

 The five-tiered platform was attached to the front of the Moon Pyramid. It is said that the present pyramid has interior structures within it. However, the pyramid still remains as one of the least understood major monuments in Teotihuacan.

 The five-tiered platform was attached to the front of the Moon Pyramid. It is said that the present pyramid has interior structures within it. However, the pyramid still remains as one of the least understood major monuments in Teotihuacan.

 The Ciudadela

The Ciudadela is a huge enclosure located at the geographic center of the city. It measures about 400 m on a side (i.e. about 160,000 m2), and the interior space is surrounded by four large platforms surmounted by pyramids.

The main plaza had a capacity of about 100,000 persons without much crowding (Cowgill 1983). One of the main functions of this closed huge space may have been ritual performance.

Mysterious Construction :

The city of Teotihuacán is meticulously laid out on a grid which is offset 15º.5 from the cardinal points. Its main avenue, the "Street of the Dead," runs from 15º.5 east of north to 15º.5 west of south, while its most impressive structure, the Pyramid of the Sun, is directly oriented to a point 15º.5 north of west -- the position at which the sun sets on August 13.

The sitting of the Pyramid of the Moon at the far end of the avenue was likewise done with such care that a sight-line directly over the top of the Pyramid of the Sun marks the meridian, thus allowing the priests of the city to fix the times of noon and midnight with complete accuracy.

The olmec Dawning

               Momentous as the developments of the Ocós period had been within Soconusco, other regions of Pacific Mexico were also being brought increasingly into the orbit of the expanding civilizations of South America during this same time frame. In the alluvial lowlands of what today are the states of Colima, Jalisco, and Nayarit, the so-called Capacha ceramic complex had appeared about 1450 B.C. One of its hallmarks was a type of stirrup jar whose origins may be traced to the Machalilla culture, another variant of the Chorrera culture from Ecuador. From its toehold on the western coast of Mexico, the Capacha culture managed to penetrate into the interior of the country by following the valley of the Río Grande de Santiago, and sometime around 1300 B.C., distinctive chamber burials -- again suggestive of South American design -- were being cut into the volcanic ash as far inland as the upland site of El Opefio in Michoacán state.

               Archaeologists working in that region have set off the century and a half between 1350 and 1200 B.C. as a distinct phase in the cultural evolution of the area -- a period which they have called the Cherla. The distinguishing characteristic of this period they have likewise identified as "Olmec influence."

               The very mention of the Olmecs prompts us to question: Who were these people, and where did they come from? Certainly, from the time of the discovery of the very first "Colossal Head" in southern Veracruz state in 1862 until well into the 1980's, most of the finds which corresponded to an Olmec art style could be traced to what has been called by Ignacio Bernal "the Olmec metropolitan area," located in the Gulf coastal plain of Mexico. Naturally, this would imply that if the Olmecs originated in the general area of Veracruz and Tabasco states, they would have had to have moved southward across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to have had any appreciable influence on the cultural evolution of the Soconusco region. However, such a postulated movement, especially at the time of the Cherla period, is totally unsupported by any archaeological evidence. On the other hand, there are numerous indicators that a vigorous movement in the opposite direction -- toward the north -- was going on at precisely this time, in which case the so-called Olmec influence must have been a native-born development emanating from Soconusco itself

               One such indicator is the Ocós ceramic style (Clark prefers to call it the "Locona"), which appears to have had a major northward diffusion at this time. Another indicator, less exactly datable to be sure but falling well within the time frame in question, is the degree of differentiation which has taken place between two branches of the Mayan language the tongue that was spoken throughout the Gulf coast region of Mexico as least as far back as 1500 B.C. Morris Swadesh, a renowned proponent of glottochronology, or the dating of languages by their relative differentiation from each other, has argued that Huastec, which is now spoken in the far north of Veracruz state, was separated from Yucatec, which is the indigenous language spoken in the area of Campeche and the Yucatán Peninsula, sometime during the thirteenth century B.C. Although he does not suggest a mechanism for accomplishing such a "split," the most likely possibility would have been the driving of a "wedge" into the Gulf coast region by a non-Mayan-speaking group. Such a wedge, in turn, would far more likely have been the result of a sustained overland movement from the south than an episodic seaborne invasion from the north. The continued presence of peoples of Zoquean speech at the northern end of the Tehuantepec Gap (the Popolucas in the eastern foothills of the Tuxtla Mountains), in the Oaxaca highlands to the west of the Gap (the Mixe), and in the Chiapas highlands to the east of the Gap (the Zoque) -- all of whom were linguistically related to the recently extinguished Tapachulteca dialect spoken in Soconusco -- testifies to the existence of a language whose geographic distribution once bridged the Isthmus of Tehuantepec from the Pacific to the Gulf.


In the ancient city of Teotihuacan, below the Pyramid of the Moon, there is a structure called The Building of the Altars. In the figure, you can see a central platform, and around the perimeter a platform at each of the cardinal points. Between the cardinal points lie other platforms, which indicate the solstice points. This structure is strictly laid out in reference to the other structures within the city.

Energy Beam

Some tourists screamed, others quickly shot the video on a camera phone, at a time when the Mayan pyramid published the crash. But it was not a consequence of the earthquake, because the next time a brilliant beam of light shot into space, and reverential audience fell silent, without any idea of ??what that means.

That amazing incident was followed by the vortex blast—witnessed and captured on film—shooting from the apex of the famous Aztec Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan, Mexico.